System head is major head loss of hydraulic system. The system head loss must be directly proportional to the square of the volumetric flow rate. Thermal Engineering
In the chapter on head loss, it was determined that both major lossesand minor losses in piping systems are proportional to the square of the flow velocity. It is obvious the system head loss must be directly proportional to the square of the volumetric flow rate, because the volumetric flow rate is directly proportional to the flow velocity.
It must be added that the open hydraulic systems contains not only the friction head, but also the elevation head, which must be considered. The elevation head (static head) represents the potential energy of a fluid due to its elevation above a reference level.
In many cases the total head of a system is a combination of elevation head and friction head as shown in the figure.
In nuclear engineering most of hydraulic systems are closed hydraulic loops and these systems only have friction head (no static head).
Major Head Loss - Friction Loss
Head loss of hydraulic system is divided into two main categories:
The friction factor for laminar flow is independent of roughness of the pipe’s inner surface. f = 64/Re
The friction factor for turbulent flow depends strongly on the relative roughness. It is determined by the Colebrook equation. It must be noted, at very large Reynolds numbers, the friction factor is independent of the Reynolds number.
Reactor Physics and Thermal Hydraulics:
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