## Universal Gas Constant

Any equation that relates the pressure, temperature, and specific volume of a substance is called an **equation of state**. The simplest and **best-known** equation of state for substances in the gas phase is the **Ideal Gas equation** of state. It was first stated by Émile Clapeyron in 1834 as a combination of the empirical Boyle’s law, Charles’ law and Avogadro’s Law. This equation predicts the **p-v-T behavior** of a gas quite accurately for dilute or low-pressure gases. In an ideal gas, molecules have no volume and do not interact. According to the ideal gas law, pressure varies linearly with** temperature** and **quantity**, and inversely with **volume**.

*pV = nRT*

where:

is the*p***absolute pressure**of the gasis the*n***amount**of substanceis the*T***absolute temperature**is the*V***volume**is the ideal, or universal,*R***gas constant**, equal to the product of the Boltzmann constant and the Avogadro constant,

In this equation the symbol R is a constant called the **universal gas constant** that has the same value for all gases—namely, **R = 8.31 J/mol K.**

The power of the ideal gas law is in its **simplicity**. When any** two** of the thermodynamic variables, p, v, and T** are** **given**, the **third** can **easily be found**. Many physical conditions of gases calculated by engineers fit the above description. Perhaps the most common use of gas behavior studied by engineers is that of the compression process and expansion process using ideal gas approximations.

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