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What is Actual and Ideal Otto Cycle – Definition

Actual and Ideal Otto Cycle. In this section it is shown an ideal Otto cycle in which there are a lot of assumptions differs from actual Otto cycle. Thermal Engineering

Comparison of Actual and Ideal Otto Cycles

Otto engine vs. Otto cycleIn this section it is shown an ideal Otto cycle in which there are a lot of assumptions differs from actual Otto cycle. The main differences between the actual and ideal Otto engine appear in the figure. In reality, the ideal cycle does not occur and there are many losses associated with each process. For an actual cycle, the shape of the pV diagram is similar to the ideal, but the area (work) enclosed by the pV diagram is always less than the ideal value. The ideal Otto cycle is based on the following assumptions:

  • Closed cycle. The largest difference between the two diagrams is the simplification of the intake and exhaust strokes in the ideal cycle. In the exhaust stroke, heat Qout is ejected to the environment, in a real engine, the gas leaves the engine and is replaced by a new mixture of air and fuel.
  • Instantaneous heat addition (isochoric heat addition). In real engines the heat addition is not instantaneous, therefore the peak pressure is not at TDC, but just after TDC.
  • No heat transfer (adiabatic)
    • Compression – The gas (fuel-air mixture) is compressed adiabatically from state 1 to state 2. In real engines, there are always some inefficiencies that reduce the thermal efficiency.
    • Expansion. The gas (fuel-air mixture) expands adiabatically from state 3 to state 4.
  • Complete combustion of fuel-air mixture.
  • No pumping work. Pumping work is the difference between the work done during exhaust stroke and the work done during intake stroke. In real cycles, there is a pressure difference between exhaust and inlet pressures.
  • No blowdown loss. Blowdown loss is caused by the early opening of exhaust valves. This results in a loss of work output during expansion stroke.
  • No blow-by loss. The blow-by loss is caused by the leakage of compressed gases through piston rings and other crevices.
  • No frictional losses.

These simplifying assumptions and losses lead to the fact that the enclosed area (work) of the pV diagram for an actual engine is significantly smaller than the size of the area (work) enclosed by the pV diagram of the ideal cycle. In other words, the ideal engine cycle will overestimate the net work and, if the engines run at the same speed, greater power produced by the actual engine by around 20%.

Nuclear and Reactor Physics:
  1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
  2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
  3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
  4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
  5. W.S.C. Williams. Nuclear and Particle Physics. Clarendon Press; 1 edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467
  6. Kenneth S. Krane. Introductory Nuclear Physics, 3rd Edition, Wiley, 1987, ISBN: 978-0471805533
  7. G.R.Keepin. Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co; 1st edition, 1965
  8. Robert Reed Burn, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988.
  9. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.

Advanced Reactor Physics:

  1. K. O. Ott, W. A. Bezella, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Statics, American Nuclear Society, Revised edition (1989), 1989, ISBN: 0-894-48033-2.
  2. K. O. Ott, R. J. Neuhold, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Dynamics, American Nuclear Society, 1985, ISBN: 0-894-48029-4.
  3. D. L. Hetrick, Dynamics of Nuclear Reactors, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48453-2.
  4. E. E. Lewis, W. F. Miller, Computational Methods of Neutron Transport, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48452-4.

See also:

Otto Cycle

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